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Reducing the gender pay gap in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics programs

Dr. Tamaro Green

Reducing the gender pay gap in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics programs

2020-11-24

A number of factors may contribute to the gender pay gap in employment (Livia, 2014).  Wieschke (2018) studies the frequency at which college graduates change employers and finds that women change employers more frequently than men.  Jovana and Svetlana (2015) explain that regulation, action programs, and promoting gender equality in the mainstream, are strategies for reducing the gender pay gap in developing government policies.  Livia (2014) expresses that stereotypes of family responsibilities, promotion, and career goals can contribute the gender pay gap.

Singh and Peers (2019) explore the percentage of women in the engineering field in a number of categories and highlight that social prestige and tradition can be a reason for the percentage gap in some countries.  Brynin and Perales (2015) describe the existence of gender segregation in certain fields and explain that education is often a key component in breaking occupational barriers.  Gürerk, Irlenbusch, and Rockenbach (2018) identify in their study that men may be more likely to initially favor team environments than women which may require changes to such environments to promote equal access.

Stamarski and Son Hing (2015) model the root causes of gender inequalities in the workplace and speculate that inequalities exist whether it is a male-dominated or female dominated workplace environment.  Thébaud and Charles (2018) suggest policies and practices for keeping women in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics careers and organizations.  Ma and Liu (2017) apply logistic regression to predict the probability of degree attainment for race and gender groups.  Sassler, Michelmore, and Smith (2017) discover significant gender and race inequalities in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics fields for computer science and engineering.  Sanabria and Penner (2017) examine whether women are less likely than men to complete a degree in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics after failing a prerequisite course.

Kurniawan, Nurhaeni, Mugijatna, and Habsari (2018) explains that in addition to the challenges for women to enter the engineering field, there is additional bias of the need to appear more professional and demonstrate more technical ability once in the field.  Dalingwater (2018) explain that one reason in a difference in pay for a country may be the availability of part time work that is available in that country.  Sardelis, Oester, and Liboiron (2017) make ten recommendations to increase the participation of women in scientific conferences.

The differences in pay between men and women in the technology field may become an obstacle as information technology transcends into the next generation.  Juhn and McCue (2017) explain that although women have made progress with regards to pay equality in recent decades there is still an underrepresentation in high earning occupations such as STEM fields.  Gillespie (2014) highlights a false claim of a technology company that stated that women are more expensive to higher because of a smaller population in the field.  Blau and Kahn (2017) discuss the gender differences in college majors to be a determining reason in the gender pay difference between men and women.

The progress made in gender equality in the sciences may be more specific to certain fields of science, technology, engineering, mathematics, and medicine (Holman et al., 2018).  Holman et al. (2018) explore the gender gap in science and provide a detailed study of women authors in the fields of science.  Chekene and Kashim (2018) explore the role of women in agricultural research and identify that women contribute more than 60% of global food supply, processing, and preparation as well as farm labour.  Verniers and Vala (2018) predict that it would take another century to close the global gender economic and education gap according to the trend of the past decade.  Cornetta et al. (2019) suggest that disengagement from science, technology, engineering, and mathematics subjects usually occurs during secondary education.  Shastri (2014) details the history of discrimination against women and gender inequality.  Baqi et al. (2017) compare differences in gender pay, support, and social issues in different countries in the medical profession.

Gender pay gaps also may be addressed in academic publishing (Shields, Hall, & Mamun, 2011).  Song, Hooper, and Loke (2013) explain that even with the advance of open access journals, publication bias has been on the rise and suggest measures to reduce publication bias.  Shields et al. (2011) describe a disproportionate amount of men publishing in journals in nursing literature than the percentage of men in the nursing field.  Holman, Stuart-Fox, and Hauser (2018) studied the gender gap in publication in science, technology, engineering, medicine, and mathematics fields and demonstrated an underrepresentation of women as single and senior authors.

Ipshita and Jane (2016) measure the history of the pay gap between women mothers and non-mothers and identify a recent rise in the pay of non-mothers over mothers that they explain can be due to a number of reasons.  Michelmore and Sassler (2016) identify the STEM fields with the smallest female representation are engineering and computer science.  Apps (2017) suggests that gender pay gaps may possibly be addressed by taxation structures.

Science, technology, engineering, and mathematics programs may have more participation with creative new approaches and consideration for practical applications (Chavan & Bedekar, 2019).  Cornetta, Mateos, Touhafi, and Muntean (2019) highlight that the proportion of students in Europe that graduated from science, technology, engineering, and mathematics programs declined since the turn of the century.  Chavan and Bedekar (2019) propose methods to increase learning engagement of massive open online courses by developing puzzle and game based designs for learning environments.  Kehrer and Penzenstadler (2018) identify five components for sustainability in research software systems which include individual, social, economic, technical, and environmental dimensions.

 

 

Apps, P. (2017). Gender equity in the tax-transfer system for fiscal sustainability. In M. Stewart (Ed.), Tax, Social Policy and Gender (pp. 69-98): ANU Press.

Chavan, S., & Bedekar, M. (2019).MOOCS for digital game based learning for learners. Paper presented at the IRAJ International Conference, Pune, India.

Cornetta, G., Mateos, J., Touhafi, A., & Muntean, G.-M. (2019). Design, simulation and testing of a cloud platform for sharing digital fabrication resources for education. Journal of Cloud Computing, 8(1), 12. doi:10.1186/s13677-019-0135-x

Holman, L., Stuart-Fox, D., & Hauser, C. E. (2018). The gender gap in science: How long until women are equally represented? PLOS Biology, 16(4), e2004956. doi:10.1371/journal.pbio.2004956

Ipshita, P., & Jane, W. (2016). The family gap in pay: New evidence for 1967 to 2013. RSF: The Russell Sage Foundation Journal of the Social Sciences, 2(4), 104-127. doi:10.7758/rsf.2016.2.4.04

Kehrer, T., & Penzenstadler, B. (2018). An exploration of sustainability thinking in research software engineering. Paper presented at the 7th International Workshop on Requirements Engineering for Sustainable Systems (RE4SuSy 2018), Banff, Alberta, Canada.

Michelmore, K., & Sassler, S. (2016). Explaining the Gender Wage Gap in STEM: Does Field Sex Composition Matter? RSF: The Russell Sage Foundation Journal of the Social Sciences, 2(4), 194-215. doi:10.7758/rsf.2016.2.4.07

Shields, L., Hall, J., & Mamun, A. A. (2011). The 'gender gap' in authorship in nursing literature. Journal of the Royal Society of Medicine, 104(11), 457-464. doi:10.1258/jrsm.2011.110015

Song, F., Hooper, L., & Loke, Y. K. (2013). Publication bias: What is it? How do we measure it? How do we avoid it? Open Access Journal of Clinical Trials, 5, 71–81.



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IDJC 2020

International Data Journalism Conference

IDJC 2020

International Data Journalism Conference

IDJC 2020

International Data Journalism Conference